Type II Diabetes

2 minute 48 second read

What is Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a condition where one’s blood glucose levels become excessively high, causing symptoms such as excessive thirst leading to increased fluid intake (polydipsia), passing urine frequently (polyuria), and weight loss.

The condition is caused by insulin resistance, with ineffective usage of insulin by the body’s cells. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates blood sugar levels. When insulin resistance develops, blood sugar levels increase, giving rise to the symptoms characteristic of Type 2 Diabetes. A long term increase in blood sugar levels can also lead to other issues, such as microvascular disease (diabetic retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and diabetic kidney disease) or macrovascular disease (heart attack or stroke).

Who is at risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes?

Any condition leading to increased insulin resistance can put one at risk of developing T2D. The leading cause is being overweight. In clinical terms, a Body Mass Index (BMI) above 25 is considered overweight in White individuals. For non-White individuals, a BMI reading above 23 is categorised as overweight.

More information regarding BMI and World Health Organisation (WHO) weight classifications can be found here.

The distribution of body fat should also be considered when assessing an individual’s risk for T2D. Central adiposity, where fat is concentrated around the abdomen (stomach), is considered a risk factor. Specifically, visceral fat found deep within the abdominal cavity, and surrounding the internal organs, such as the liver and pancreas. Its presence leads to an increase in insulin resistance, and a reduction in insulin production by the pancreas.

Additionally, other endocrine conditions can lead to T2D, such as Cushing’s, Acromegaly, and Phaeochromocytoma. In rare instances, a genetic condition causing lipodystrophy, can see T2D develop in an otherwise slim-built individual.

How do you treat Type 2 Diabetes?

As the most common cause of T2D is being overweight, weight loss is key to improving, or even reversing this condition. Studies show that if an individual is able to lose 15% of their body weight within 5 years of being diagnosed, they stand a very good chance of putting their T2D into remission. This means they are able to bring their blood sugar levels down to the healthy range, usually without the need for medications.

Weight loss can be achieved through various means, although lifestyle changes (dietary modifications and increasing physical activity) are key. For more information regarding weight management, please click here.

We have seen significant improvements in T2D medication over the past 10 to 15 years. Current medications not only help with diabetes control, but also aid weight loss. Overall, their long-term effectiveness is good, with the added benefit of newer medications being helpful in reducing cardiovascular risk (heart attack and stroke).

What can we offer for individuals with Type 2 Diabetes?

In recent years, there has been a big push for diabetes to be managed through a patient-centred approach. It is evident that there is no one-size-fits-all solution, and every treatment regimen is as unique as the individual living with T2D.

With more than 12 years of clinical experience treating patient with diabetes (including Type 2), Dr Tan is well-placed to guide you in making optimal choices in managing, and potentially reversing, your T2D. A bespoke treatment plan will be developed, following extensive discussion(s) with yourself, to ensure every facet affecting your condition is covered, including medical history, weight management, and medication(s).

Type I Diabetes

Management of a life-long disease, with the help of technologies including insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitors.

Type II Diabetes

Management of Type II diabetes, and potential reversal, for a better quality of life.


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