What is the thyroid gland?

This butterfly-shaped endocrine gland sits at the front of the throat, directly below the Adam’s apple. It is responsible for producing thyroid hormones, and plays an important role in regulating the body’s metabolic balance. This runs the gamut, from heart rate, body temperature, and bowel movements, to anxiety levels, memory, and focus.

What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism?

If you are suffering from hypothyroidism, you might feel cold, experience weight gain or hair loss, struggle with memory, find it hard to concentrate, or constantly feel tired.

What causes hypothyroidism?

The most common cause of hypothyroidism is an autoimmune disorder. When this happens, your immune system mistakes part of your body, such as the endocrine gland, as “foreign”. It then produces antibodies, which attacks and damages healthy cells, tissues, and organs. Hypothyroidism can also be caused by treatment with radioactive iodine, or surgical removal of the thyroid gland due to an overactive thyroid or thyroid cancer.

How do I treat hypothyroidism?

Treatment of hypothyroidism is by consuming synthetic thyroid hormones (Levothyroxine), with the aim of achieving a normal thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH) level. TSH is produced by the pituitary gland, also known as the master gland. The pituitary gland will monitor and regulate the amount of thyroid hormone circulating in the body.

When should I see an endocrinologist?

If you continue to struggle with the symptoms of hypothyroidism despite normal TSH levels, or you are having difficulty achieving a normal TSH level, you should see an endocrinologist.

Why am I still suffering from symptoms of hypothyroidism even with treatment?

The vast majority (>95%) of patients with hypothyroidism feel normal once their TSH levels are normalised. However, a small subset of patients continue to struggle with symptoms, despite normal TSH levels. An endocrinologist will be able to help you decide on the best options moving forward, in terms of investigation and treatment. This may include more comprehensive hormonal testing, and considering the use of Liothyronine (T3 hormones).

Type I Diabetes

Management of a life-long disease, with the help of technologies including insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitors.

Type II Diabetes

Management of Type II diabetes, and potential reversal, for a better quality of life.


Overactive thyroid.


Underactive thyroid.

Weight Management

Overweight or obesity.

Testosterone Deficiency

Also called hypogonadism.

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